Instructions for Authors by “Journal of Medical Biomechanics



    The Journal of Medical Biomechanics (JMB) is the only bimonthly, peer-reviewed journal in public circulation with the aim of creating mutual understanding and cooperating among medicine, science, and engineering disciplines and is sponsored by Shanghai Jiao Tong University and supervised by Ministry of Education of People’s Republic of China. JMB hopes to promote international academic exchanges in this field by publishing basic research and application results in medical biomechanics. The journal has been included in certain famous databases such as Chemical Abstract, Index Copernicus, and Scopus. In 2012, JMB was selected in the 2011 edition of “Guide of the Core Journals of China” by Peking University Library. From 2010 to 2012, all the articles published in JMB have been indexed in Ei Compendex. From 2012 on, readers can download the PDF version of the published articles from the JMB website: To ensure the quality of articles and standardization of editing, please read the following instructions carefully and strictly abide by them when writing and submitting a manuscript. Any manuscripts that do not adhere to the requirements detailed in these instructions will be rejected.


    1.        Scope of contributions

    As an academic periodical, JMB seeks to publish articles relating to medical biomechanics and interdisciplinary fields, including basic, applied and clinical research. Areas that are covered include but are not limited to mechanobiology, organ-tissue biomechanics, molecular biomechanics, sensory system biomechanics, musculoskeletal biomechanics, aerospace biomechanics, oral biomechanics, respiratory system biomechanics, rehabilitation engineering biomechanics, vascular biomechanics, hemarheology, medical materials biomechanics, sports biomechanics. The journal is published on a bimonthly basis.

    JMB favors peer-reviewed Original Articles and Review Articles on basic and clinical researches in the field of biomechanics. In addition to manuscripts in Chinese, innovative English contributions are also considered for publication.


    2.        Author information

    2.1 Conflict of Interest When authors submit a manuscript, they are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work and undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, and of science itself. This information must be included in their cover letter and in the confict of interest section of their manuscirpt.  Editors may use information disclosed in conflict of interest and financial interest statements as a basis for editorial decisions. Editors should publish this information if they believe it is important in judging the manuscript.

    2.2 Informed consent Before experimenting on human subjects, authors should obtain the statement of informed consent from the study participants. The study participants have a right to privacy that should not be violated without informed consent. Identifying information, including names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. When informed consent has been obtained, it will be indicated in the published article.

    2.3 Ethical requirement When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

    2.4 Copyright   All material published in JMB is protected, which covers exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the material.

    2.5 Disclaimer  While the advice and information in JMB is believed to be true and accurate at the date of its publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publishers can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. 


    3.        Manuscript requirements

    3.1 All manuscripts should be scientifically sound, authentic, practical and innovative. Apart from outstanding emphases, sharp-cut contentions, clear arrangement, reliable data, and sufficient evidence, concise words, flowing sentences, correct punctuations and normal usage of words are also strictly required. Avoid repeating the same information in the text, figures and tables. Original articles should not exceed 6500 words, and review article should not exceed 6000 words (excluding figures and tables, references). 

    3.2 JMB launched the online submission system in 2010. Please go to the website to upload the required files following the guidelines of the online submission system. Please mail the recommendation letter and Transfer of Copyright document to JMB editorial office (639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011), or send the scanning copies to JMB E-mail ( The manuscript processing state could be inquired about by the author through the online submission system at any time.

    3.3 JMB has opened up a fast publication channel for manuscripts that report internationally-advanced innovative scientific results or has been first published internationally. In this case, the author should provide an innovation statement plus at least one recommendation letter from other department’s expert. Manuscripts that meet the criterion for fast publication channel can enjoy top-priority and fast review, and the name of recommender can be marked at the end of the published article.

    4.        Manuscript preparation

    4.1 Format The text should be 1.5-spaced, one column arrangement, with the integration of graphs and text. The text needs one blank between sequence numbers of all levels of subheadings and content rather than any punctuation. The format is as follows:

    1 XXX (first level subheading in one line without blank)

    1.1  XXX(second level subheading in one line without blank)

    1.11               XXX(third level subheading without blank, followed by text)

      The essentials of an article can’t be used as subheadings. The original article must contain the following six parts: Chinese and English abstract, introduction, material and methods, results, discussion and references.

    4.2 Title The title should be as concise and definite as possible; please limit the unnecessary use of abbreviations and subtitles. The meaning for both Chinese and English title should be consistent.

    4.3 Fund project If the article is supported by national or municipal grants or is a national key scientific and technological project, the fund should be footnoted at the title page. For example: fund project: the National Science Foundation of China (30810103908).

    4.4 Authorship The authors are those who are involved in the topic design, data analysis, writing or modifying of the manuscript content. Authors should sign in sequence according to their responsibilities and contributions for the research. Those who have substantial contribution to the article may be acknowledged at the end of the article. If the article is the result of cooperation by different departments, please mark 1, 2, 3 on top right corner of the author’s name and indicate the affiliations of each author, including the post code.

      Among the authors, generally one should be designated as corresponding author, who is normally the fund principal or research supervisor, familiar with the manuscript and can be wholly responsible for the submitted manuscript. The name, title, telephone number, E-mail of the corresponding author should be footnoted at the title page.

    4.5 Abstract Both Chinese and English abstracts are required for the article. Original articles should adopt the structured abstract including information as applicable for the following headings: Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The clinical significance of the original research should be indicated in the conclusion part. Invited reviews and review articles should adopt the indicative abstract. The English title, names of all the authors (spelled in Chinese spelling, each letter of the surname capitalized, the initial letter of the name capitalized, separated by comma), their affiliation, city, post code and county name should be listed before the English abstract.

    4.6 Key words Generally, key words should be closely related to the main ideas of the study or discussion with 3 to 8 words, usually extracting from the title, abstract and text. Please be sure that the key words are accordant with MeSH or Ei Thesaurus and separated by semicolon. The initial letter of each English key word should be capitalized. 

    4.7 Discussion The discussion part is an indispensable part in the manuscript, where relevant references can be quoted to demonstrate the research objective and experiment results, and put forward the author’s argument, which should be objective and reasonable and focuses on the theme without exaggeration or deviation. The deficiency of the research and further work plan at the next stage can also be elaborated in the discussion part.

    4.8 Figures and tables The figures should be as few and concise as possible. Reasonable, easily understandable and correctly designed figures will be accepted. Do not use a figure if language alone is enough to explain. The table of three-lined (top line, column line and bottom line) is acceptable, but boundary lines can be drawn above the bottom line if portrait sum is needed. The results of statistical data analysis, such as t or P, can be included in a table, with or without notes below the bottom line of the table. As for multiple figures or tables, they should be numbered in Arabic numerals in order of where they are discussed.

    All the tables and figures should have titles in both Chinese and English. References should be marked if any data in the tables and figures are quoted from other resources and permission from the publisher (editorial department) must be obtained. 

    Photographs should be clear, high-contrast and high-resolution, 57 ration between the height and width. Black-white or color pictures are accepted. In special instances, black-white or color positive films and negative films of radiographs, CT scans and slides are also adopted. For photographs of identifiable persons, written permission from the subjects must be supplied or the subject’s eyes will be masked. The histological microphotographs are required to indicate original magnification, staining method and scale marker such as 1 μm for electronic microscopic pictures.

    4.9 Units of measurement In accordance with GB 3100~3102—1993 Quantities and Units, units of measurement should adopt symbols, and the name of the units should not be mixed with the symbol of the units. Manuscripts are required strongly to apply legal units of measurement, standard international symbols and correct lowercases and capitals, for example, 50 mg/(kg•d) or 50 mg· kg-1·d-1. Unit symbols must be in italic letters (pH is excepted), while the symbols of vector and tensor should be in black italics. When infrequently-used legal units of measurement appeared in the text for the first time, the conversion coefficient with the old unit of measurement should be marked in the bracket, and then the legal unit of measurement can be directly listed in the following text. The unit mmHg or cmH2O can be used to term pressure in human or animal body, but bracket (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) should be added when appeared in the text for the first time.

    4.10 Numbers In accordance with GB/T 15835—2011 Numeral Use on Publications, century in international calendar, times, year, month, day, hour, numbers, measurement should adopt the Arabic numerals. All numbers should be separated every three digits by a blank of 1/4 Chinese word rather than any symbol, for example, 5 000(not 5,000). However, ordinal numerals and year, page numbers, military designation, instrument model, standard number are not separated by symbols. Number ranges are expressed as follows: 4~6kg, 5.2%~11.3%, 4×109~10×109, 36°~42°18′. Multiplication of the numbers with units should be written as follows: 4 cm×3 cm×5 cm, instead of 4×3×5 cm3.

    4.11 Statistical symbols Authors should be responsible for the accuracy of the data cited in the article. If necessary, statistical analysis should be carried out with SAS or SPSS software package.  In accordance with GB/T 3358.1—2009 Statistics-Vocabulary and Symbols, statistical terms, symbols, number round-off, Chinese and English abbreviations should be standardized, for example,  stands for arithmetical average, s for standard deviation, t means Student’s t test, F means F test, χ2means chi-square test, r means correlation coefficient, υmeans degree of freedom, P means probability. All symbols should be in italics.

    4.12 Abbreviations Abbreviated terms should not be used in the title. The full Chinese name for the abbreviation should be given when it appears in the abstract or text for the first time. When used in text, the full term should be presented at the first time it occurs followed by abbreviations and/or English term and abbreviation in bracket and separated by comma. If the abbreviation is publicly well-known, such as DNA, RNA, PCR, its full English term can be omitted.

    4.13 References In accordance with GB/T 7714—2005 Rules for Content, Form and Structure of Bibliographic References, references are to be cited in numerical order in the text and identified by Arabic numerals set in superscript type. In text and reference list, the sequence number should also be put in middle brackets. The reference must be recently published and read by authors. The majority should be within the past 5 years. Unpublished material, observations or personal correspondence should not be cited. The unpublished literature that has been accepted for publication can be listed as references with “in press” after the journal title. If authors of the reference are within 3 persons, list the names of them all; if authors of the reference exceed 3 persons, list the name of the first three authors, and add “et al” to represent the other authors. The surname should be placed before the name, and the name of foreigners should adopt acronyms, which are not followed by the abbreviation punctuation. The name of different authors should be separated by commas. The titles of Chinese journals should adopt the full name, while the titles of foreign journals should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus.

     The document type in references is: Monograph [M], Journal [J], Conference proceedings [C], Scientific report [R], Dissertation [D], Patent [P], Standard [S]. If the publisher of the conference proceedings is unclear, it can be represented by [s.n.]. Sample references are given below:  

    [1] Schmoelz W, Onder U, Martin A, et al. Non-fusion instrumentation of the lumbar spine with a hinged pedicle screw rod system: An in vitro experiment [J]. Eur Spine J, 2009, 18(10): 1478-1485.

    [2] Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis TM, et al. Laboratory manual [M]. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press, 1989: 1-38.

    [3] Hunt JC, Wray AAMoin PEddies, streams and convergence zones in turbulent flows [C]// Proceedings of the Summer ProgramCenter for Turbulence Research. California: Stanford University, 1988: 193-208.

    [4] World Health Organization. Factors regulating the immune response: Report of WHO Scientific Group [R]. Geneva: WHO, 1970.

    [5] Tanguay M. Computation of bubbly cavitating flow in shock wave lithotripsy [D]. California: California Institute of Technology, 2004.

    [6] Online Computer Library Center, Inc. History of OCLC [EB/OL]. http: // www. oclc. org/about/history/default.htm.

    4.14 Acknowledgement The acknowledgement should be placed at the end of the text and before the references. It should express thanks to those who are partially involved in the research work, offer technique help, work convenience, guidance and those groups and individuals who provide funding. The words should be agreed by the people who are acknowledged.

    5.        Manuscript processing

    5.1 Manuscript review JMB strictly performs by the Tri-editing System based on peer-review policy (preliminary review by the editor, peer-review by the experts, final review by the editorial board). Authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts exist in the manuscript. The author’s privacy will be protected during the review process. Rejection opinion will be sent back to the authors when the manuscript is refused for publication. If authors hold different opinions on manuscript processing, they reserve right to apply for reconsideration by submitting the written statement of appeal.

    5.2 Duplicate submission Please be sure not to duplicate submission. If authors wish to submit the manuscript to other journals after 2 months upon receiving the manuscript receipt but without any notification on manuscript processing which could be still under review, they are obliged to contact the editorial office in advance. Once the duplicate submission is revealed, the manuscript will be rejected immediately. Once the duplicate publication is revealed, JMB will make a statement on such work, notify the authors’ affiliation and other technical journals in the field, and refuse the contribution of the authors in any identity within two years.

    5.3 Manuscript revision It is the authors that should accept legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made in the manuscript. According to the copyright law and condition of the journal, the editorial office will inform authors within three months of receipt whether the manuscript is accepted or needs revision. The editorial office reserves the right to make editorial changes or abridge the manuscripts. If the revisions will change the original opinions, the permission of the authors is required. The author should reply the reviewer’s comments point-by-point in the response letter which should be uploaded as the attachment, and mark the modification in a different color in the revised manuscript.

    5.4 Manuscript authorization A recommendation letter and the Transfer of Copyright to JMB document are the prerequisites of publication. The formal recommendation letter should declare the authenticity of the manuscript, no secrecy involved, no disputing about signature, no breaking of the copyrights and no submission to other journa. Once the paper is published, JMB reserves the right to compile, reproduce, and translate the printed and electronic edition of the paper, as well as the right of web communication and database inclusion. In the interest of authors and publishers, any corporation or person is forbidden to copy or reproduce material from the published papers in any form unless a written permission from the editorial office is obtained.

    5.5 Manuscript charges A 50 Yuan RMB fee must be mailed to the editorial office in order for the manuscript to be reviewed. Authors are required to pay page charges if their manuscripts are accepted for publication. Remuneration will be paid and two copies will be mailed to the corresponding author after publication.

    5.6 Advanced publication From 2013, JMB will launch Advanced Online Publication in cooperation with China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Accepted manuscripts will be put on webs of JMB and CNKI in time without additional written permission from the authors.