Neovascularization plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes, but its mechanism is still unclear. Since vascular cells are subjected to a variety of biochemical and biomechanical stimulations in vivo and live in a complex microenvironment, it is necessary to construct the vascular model in vitro and mimic the in vivo microenvironment to explore the mechanism of neovascularization. Recently, owing to the advance of micromachining and microfluidic technology, various in vitro microvascular models have emerged. Variables such as shear stress, interstitial flow and biochemical gradient of angiogenic factors have been controlled in these models, which greatly promotes the research of neovascularization. Here, the construction, development and biomechanical design of various microvascular models are reviewed.