1.郑州大学 力学与安全工程学院;2.北京航空航天大学 生物医学工程学院
目的 采用有限元方法针对典型机动飞行动作过程中飞行员颈椎动力学响应进行仿真，并采用冲击损伤及疲劳损伤模型对飞行员颈椎组织损伤失效进行分析预测。方法 构建具有较高生物仿真度的颈部有限元模型，结合实例对模型的有效性进行验证。然后，加载离心训练机不同模式下的过载曲线进行数值仿真，并采用通用颈椎损伤判定准则和生物组织疲劳损伤模型对组织的冲击损伤及疲劳损伤进行预测分析。结果 计算结果表明机动飞行动作下的过载冲击产生的椎骨最大应力为66.53MPa、椎间盘最大应力为58.63MPa，根据Nij损伤准则计算得最大值为0.096，低于损伤耐受阈值1，不会对颈椎骨组织造成直接的急性损伤；引用生物组织疲劳损伤模型得知松质骨在不间断重复加载超过四万余次的情况下发生疲劳失效破坏，考虑到飞行员有限的飞行生涯，椎骨骨组织不会因疲劳损伤积累而导致破坏。结论 本文针对典型机动飞行动作下飞行员颈部动力学响应进行了仿真计算，结合生物组织损伤模型分别对飞行员颈椎冲击损伤和疲劳损伤进行了预测。在一定程度上有助于制定飞行员训练和飞行方案，也为其防护装备开发提供数据支持。
Objective The finite element method was used to simulate the dynamic response of pilot's cervical spine during typical maneuvering flight movements, and the neck injury of human body during flight was analyzed and predicted by the impact injury and fatigue injury model of biological tissue. Methods A geometrically accurate finite element model of neck was constructed, and the validity of the model was verified by relevant examples. Then, the acceleration curves of centrifugal trainer during different modes were loaded to numerically simulate, and the impact damage and fatigue damage of tissue were predicted by using the universal cervical injury criterion and the fatigue damage model of biological tissue. Results The results show that the maximum stress of vertebrae and intervertebral disc is 66.53MPa and 58.63MPa respectively during the typical maneuverable flight. According to the NIJ injury criteria, the maximum value was 0.096, which was lower than the injury tolerance threshold of 1, and would not cause direct acute injury to the cervical spine bone tissue. Based on the fatigue damage model of biological tissue slices, it was found that cancellous bone suffered fatigue failure under the condition of uninterrupted repeated loading for more than 40,000 times. Considering the limited flight career of the pilot, the vertebral bone tissue would not be damaged due to the accumulation of fatigue damage. Conclusions In this paper, the dynamic response of the pilot’s neck during typical maneuvering flight is simulated, combined with the biological tissue damage model to predict the impact and fatigue damage of the pilot’s cervical spine respectively. To a certain extent, it helps to formulate pilot training and flight plans, and also provides data support for the development of its protective equipment.