足型差异对足踝功能影响的生物力学探究
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河北师范大学体育学院

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Biomechanical study on the influence of foot type difference on foot and ankle function
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    摘要:

    摘要:研究目的:通过运动生物力学手段从动态和静态两个方面评价不同足型受试者足踝功能的差异,为足踝运动的研究提供理论支持和参考依据。研究方法:对65名受试者以足弓指数区分成扁平足、低足弓和正常足三组,采用单因素方差分析三组受数者静态和动态足踝功能指标的差异。研究结果:在静态足踝功能方面,正常足与低足弓和扁平足在踝关节适应性上存在显著性差异(P<0.05);在纵弓适应性上,正常足和扁平足之间存在显著性差异(P<0.05);三组横弓适应性无统计学意义。在动态足踝功能上,缓冲阶段正常足与低足弓和扁平足在受力偏移幅度和时间均存在统计学意义(P<0.05);在过渡阶段,正常足相比于低足弓和扁平足,过渡时间显著性降低(P<0.05);在蹬伸阶段,正常足与扁平足在蹬伸时间和蹬伸速度均存在显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论:在静态足踝功能方面,负重增加时,低足弓和扁平足后足姿势维持能力和纵弓形态维持能力相比于正常足较差;在动态足踝功能方面,低足弓和扁平足的足弓刚性和足底弹性相比于正常足较差,正常足在行走时表现出更好的承重缓冲能力、弹性向刚性过渡能力以及蹬伸效率;系统全面的评测体系对足踝损伤风险的预测、运动能力的评估有着重要意义。

    Abstract:

    Abstract: the purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of foot and ankle function of subjects with different foot types from both dynamic and static aspects by means of exercise biomechanics, so as to provide theoretical support and reference for the study of foot and ankle movement. Methods: sixty-five subjects were divided into three groups: flat foot, low foot arch and normal foot according to arch index. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the difference of static and dynamic foot and ankle function indexes among the three groups. Results: in terms of static ankle function, there was significant difference in ankle adaptability between normal foot and low arch and flat foot (P<0.05), and between normal foot and flat foot in longitudinal arch adaptability (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in transverse arch adaptability among the three groups. In the dynamic function of foot and ankle, there were significant differences in the amplitude and time of force deviation between normal foot and low arch and flat foot in the buffer stage (P<0.05), and in the transition stage, compared with low arch and flat foot, the transition time of normal foot was significantly lower than that of low arch and flat foot (P<0.05). In the pedal-extension stage, there were significant differences in pedal-extension time and pedal-extension speed between normal foot and flat foot (P<0.05). Conclusion: in terms of static foot and ankle function, the posture maintenance ability and longitudinal arch shape maintenance ability of low arch and flat foot are worse than that of normal foot when load is increased, and in terms of dynamic ankle function, the arch rigidity and plantar elasticity of low arch and flat foot are worse than that of normal foot, and the normal foot shows better load-bearing cushioning ability, elastic-to-rigid transition ability and pedal extension efficiency when walking. A systematic and comprehensive evaluation system is of great significance to the prediction of foot and ankle injury risk and the evaluation of sports ability.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-01-31
  • 最后修改日期:2021-02-25
  • 录用日期:2021-03-09
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