Tianjin University of Science and Technology
The National Natural Science Foundation of China (General Program, Key Program, Major Research Plan)
目 的 应用符合Euro NCAP要求的六岁儿童行人有限元模型，探究不同碰撞方位下的儿童头部损伤机理。方 法应用符合EuroNCAP技术公告（TB024）并且具有详细解剖学结构的6岁儿童行人有限元模型，设置了4组行人-汽车碰撞仿真试验以探究不同碰撞方位下的儿童头部损伤机理。人体头部质心初始位置在车的纵向中心线上，轿车的初速度为40km/h，轿车分别与人体右侧、前侧、左侧、后侧碰撞（即0°、90°、180°、270°）。结果 比较了不同碰撞方位下的运动学差异，对头部碰撞响应进行了比较，同时对面骨和颅骨的损伤情况进行了分析。结果显示背面碰撞（270°）和正面碰撞（90°）条件下的头部骨折及脑挫伤的损伤风险大于侧面碰撞的情况，其中背面碰撞（270°）下的损伤风险最高，侧面碰撞（0°）下的损伤风险最低，而根据脑组织最大主应变进行损伤风险判定，侧面碰撞（0°）下头部发生AIS2+的风险最大。结论 通过数据分析，发现在侧面碰撞（180°）下儿童行人头部损伤最小，对儿童行人头部损伤机理进行了深入分析，为行人-汽车碰撞防护装置的研发具有重要的应用价值。
Objective The finite element model of six-year-old children as specified in the Euro NCAP was applied to explore the mechanism of children's head injury under different collision orientations.Methods Based on the finite element model of 6-year-old pedestrian with detailed anatomical structure as specified by the Euro NCAP TB024, 4 groups of simulation experiments were set up to explore the mechanism of head injury in children under different collision angles. The initial position of the center of mass of the human head was on the longitudinal center line of the car. The car's initial speed was 40km/h. The car contacted with the model from right(0°), front(90°), left(180°) and back(270°). Results The kinematics differences and the head collision responses were investigated and the injuries of facial bone and skull were analyzed. The results indicated that the risk of head fracture and brain contusion in the condition of back collision(270°) and front collision（90°） was higher than that in the condition of side collision, among which, the risk of head fracture and brain contusion was highest in the condition of back collision（270°）, lowest in the condition of side collision（0°）, and according to the maximum principal strain of brain tissue,the risk of head AIS2+ was highest in the condition of side collision（0°）. Conclusion Through analysis, it is found that the child pedestrian head injury is the least under side collision (180°), and the mechanism of child pedestrian head injury is analyzed, which has important application value for the research and development of pedestrian - car collision protection device.