1.Ningbo University;2.Faculty of Sports Science,Ningbo University,Ningbo,Zhejiang
目的：通过一维统计参数映射对比分析男、女性跑者及左、右侧地面反作用力(Ground Reaction Force, GRF)的差异。 方法：共计30名男女性跑者在Bertec测力跑台上以12km/h(3.3m/s)速度进行跑步测试，记录连续五个支撑期的地面反作用力，采用一维统计参数映射独立样本t检验与配对样本t检验分别对比男、女跑者及左、右侧地面反作用力的差异。 结果：1)男性与女性跑者的垂直平均负荷加载率左、右侧均存在不对称，且男性跑者的左侧值显著高于女性，而右侧无显著差异；2)男女性跑者右侧垂直GRF在蹬离期及横向GRF在落地期存在差异，男女性跑者左侧横向GRF在落地期及支撑中期存在差异；男性跑者的左右侧前后GRF在蹬离期、垂直GRF在落地和蹬离期及横向GRF在落地期均在存在差异；女性跑者的左右侧GRF仅在垂直方向的落地期和蹬离期存在差异。 结论：本文介绍了SPM在地面反作用力数据分析中的应用，阐释了相关步骤及原理，对比了SPM连续值检验与特征值检验的差异，并讨论了参数性SPM与非参数性SnPM的差异与特征，为该方法在运动生物力学研究中的应用提供启示和参考。对男女性跑者间及左右侧GRF的对比分析发现在落地期、支撑中期及蹬离期等阶段的性别差异及左右侧对称性差异，相关结果为后续进一步探究跑步相关损伤原理及防治措施铺垫了基础。
Objective: This study aimed to analyse the difference in the ground reaction force between male and female runners and left versus right limbs using the one-dimensional Statistical Parametric Mapping. Methods: Thirty male and female runners participated the running test on the Bertec force treadmill at a speed of 12 km/h (3.3m/s). Ground reaction force of consecutive five steps were recorded. The independent-sample t test and paired-sample t test in the Statistical Parametric Mapping package were used to check the male versus female and right versus left difference. Results: 1) Male and female runners showed inter-limb asymmetry in the vertical average loading rate (VALR), and male was significantly higher than female with no significance in the right limb. 2) Male and female runners showed significance in the right vertical GRF during push-off and medial-lateral GRF during landing, while left medial-lateral GRF presented significance during landing and mid stance. Male showed right versus left significance in the anterior-posterior GRF during push-off, vertical GRF during landing and push-off and medial-lateral GRF during landing, while female exhibited right versus left significance in the vertical GRF during landing and push-off. Conclusion: This study introduced the application of SPM in the statistical analysis of ground reaction force, elaborated the procedures and theory, compared the test of time-series data in SPM and discrete value with traditional statistics, and discussed the difference and features in SPM and SnPM, thus providing implication and reference for the application in the data analysis of sports biomechanics. Comparison in the male versus female and right versus left revealed the genders and inter-limb symmetrical differences in the landing, mid-stance and push-off phases during stance. Findings laid the foundation for future investigation of mechanism in running related injuries and strategy of prevention and treatment.