机械通气在治疗新型冠状病毒肺炎中的生物力学问题
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国家自然科学基金项目(11532003,31670950),江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK20151186),常州市国际科技合作项目(CZ20180017)


Biomechanical Issues of Mechanical Ventilation in Covid-19 Therapy
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    摘要:

    新型冠状病毒肺炎(coronavirus disease 2019,Covid-19)危重症患者常表现出急性呼吸窘迫综合征(acute respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS),乃至急性呼吸衰竭,需要通过机械通气提供呼吸支持。但临床观察发现,机械通气后患者死亡率非常高(>50%)。鉴于机械通气的力学本质,机械通气后的高死亡率很可能与通气条件下机械拉伸刺激引起的肺损伤相关,因而从生物力学的角度理解机械通气条件下呼吸系统的病理变化及其机理和潜在对抗措施,对完善Covid-19危重症患者的治疗方法具有十分重要的意义和紧迫性。Covid-19危重症患者治疗中机械通气导致的肺损伤涉及诸多生物力学因素及作用机制,包括机械通气力学参数的变化、炎症因子风暴、纤毛-黏液系统、气道平滑肌的作用、肺纤维化、细胞对于拉伸的感应机制等。这些生物力学问题应当得到高度重视和深入研究,以为完善新冠肺炎等呼吸疾病的治疗方案提供新思路。

    Abstract:

    The critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients usually present acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or even acute respiratory failure, and require mechanical ventilation (MV) to provide support for breathing. However, clinical studies have found an extraordinarily high mortality rate (>50%) for those Covid-19 patients who underwent MV. Considering the mechanical nature of MV, the high mortality rate is highly possible to be associated with mechanical stretch-induced lung injury during MV. Thus, it is imperative to understand the MV-induced pathological alterations in the respiratory system and corresponding mitigation measures in order to improve the therapy of critically ill Covid-19 patients. Ventilator-induced lung injury in therapy of critically ill Covid-19 patients involves several biomechanical factors and mechanisms, including changes in respiratory parameters, inflammatory cytokines storm, ciliary-mucus system, airway smooth muscle cells, lung fibrosis, and stretch-activated cell signaling. It is hoped that these biomechanical issues can be diligently investigated, so as to provide insights for optimizing the therapy for Covid-19 as well as other respiratory diseases.

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罗明志,倪凯,闻康,邓林红.机械通气在治疗新型冠状病毒肺炎中的生物力学问题[J].医用生物力学,2020,35(3):265-270

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  • 收稿日期:2020-05-12
  • 最后修改日期:2020-05-13
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  • 在线发布日期: 2020-06-24
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