国家自然科学基金项目（11872095， 11432016， 31570945， 11421202），国家重点研发计划课题（2016YFB1101102）
Aging is a major risk factor for diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis. However, they are not necessarily the result of aging, and the relationship between changes in bone and cartilage associated with aging and disease progression is still unclear. Therefore, it is important to study changes in cells and tissues during aging in order to reduce or avoid bone and cartilage loss due to aging. Recent studies have shown that the development and progression of osteoarthritis is not a simple cartilage wear process, while its occurrence involves complex biological, chemical and mechanical changes in the tissues of the entire joint, especially the interaction of mechanics and biochemistry between cartilage and subchondral bone. Aging contributes to the occurrence and development of OA, but it is not the cause of OA. Changes associated with aging provide a foundation for OA to start, making joints more susceptible to other factors such as abnormal biomechanics and biochemistry, thereby promoting the development of OA. Therefore, understanding the basic mechanisms by which aging affects joint tissue may provide new targets for slowing or preventing the development of OA. In this paper, the related research progresses are reviewed from three aspects, i.e. age-related changes in cartilage and subchondral bone, mechanical conduction and angiogenesis.